Prostate cancer is a leading cause of mortality in men. The aberrant expression of growth factors and their receptors play a pivotal role in the dysregulated growth and malignant transformation of the prostate to adenocarcinoma. We are currently characterizing the interaction of the neurotrophins with the Trk receptor in the proliferation of tumor cells, and conversely, with the p75NTR receptor in the induction of apoptosis. A change in the balance of Trk mediated proliferation and p75NTR mediated apoptosis appears to be pivotal in the neurotrophin mediated malignant progression of the prostate. Experimental manipulation of the neurotrophin, Trk and p75NTR axis in prostate tumor cell growth is being investigated as a means of therapeutic intervention in prostate cancer.