This study will be the first evaluation of the long-term sequelae of prostate cancer screening and treatment among men in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO). There are several crucial scientific, clinical, and policy questions that can be answered using this unique and well defined population. First, it is critical to understand if the quality of the years gained living with prostate cancer justifies the use of screening. Second, since it is possible that the main PLCO trial will never be able to “prove” that screening decreases mortality, the difference been screened and unscreened men may rest solely in quality of life differences. Third, few studies have provided a comparable healthy group to disentangle the effects of aging with the impact of screening and prostate cancer treatment. Fourth, we will evaluate the impact of the potentially adverse effect of repeated false positive screening results on long-term outcomes. Finally, policy planners will benefit from the evaluation of the quality of life costs of screening, and whether there are differences among men diagnosed with cancer via screening compared to men diagnosed through usual care.